[分享][轉貼]6502完整指令集(※含執行時間)

6502 組合語言,是哈電族裡使用的程式語言,也是目前設計 Bin 的唯一方法,有興趣的就進來吧
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[分享][轉貼]6502完整指令集(※含執行時間)

文章 sppmg » 2005-08-25 2:55 PM

http://www.tgclc.com/BBS/dispbbs.asp?bo ... 743&page=1

以下有些中文是我打的。

請以以下格式觀看
字型:fixedsys,字集BIG5,字體12(字集為BIG5才有)

※機械週期就是cpu時脈的倒數*12(參考8051精簡指令集電腦)


哈電族nc2000為4.5MHz,所以一個機械週期就是12/4.5*1024^2=2.5431315E-6秒。約為2.5微秒






指令:

6502完整指令集

ADC (ADd with Carry) ADC (加法運算,受Carry影響)
Affects Flags: S V Z C 受此指令影響的標誌:S V Z C


MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM 模式 語法 代碼 長度 執行週期
Immediate ADC #$44 $69 2 2 直接定址 ADC #$44 $69 2 2
Zero Page ADC $44 $65 2 3 零頁定址 ADC $44 $65 2 3
Zero Page,X ADC $44,X $75 2 4 零頁X定址 ADC $44,X $75 2 4
Absolute ADC $4400 $6D 3 4 絕對定位 ADC $4400 $6D 3 4
Absolute,X ADC $4400,X $7D 3 4+ 絕對X定址 ADC $4400,X $7D 3 4+
Absolute,Y ADC $4400,Y $79 3 4+ 絕對Y定址 ADC $4400,Y $79 3 4+
Indirect,X ADC ($44,X) $61 2 6 間接X定址 ADC ($44,X) $61 2 6
Indirect,Y ADC ($44),Y $71 2 5+ 間接Y定址 ADC ($44),Y $71 2 5+


+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed 注“+”號的表示如果定址跨一頁($100)則增加一個執行週期。


ADC results are dependant on the setting of the decimal flag. In decimal mode, addition is carried out on the assumption that the values involved are packed BCD (Binary Coded Decimal).
There is no way to add without carry.


ADC的結果取決於D標誌的設定。在十進位模式,參與加法運算的數值將被假定為是BCD編碼(二進位編碼的十進位數字)。
加法運算始終要受C標誌影響。


AND (bitwise AND with accumulator)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate AND #$44 $29 2 2
Zero Page AND $44 $25 2 2
Zero Page,X AND $44,X $35 2 3
Absolute AND $4400 $2D 3 4
Absolute,X AND $4400,X $3D 3 4+
Absolute,Y AND $4400,Y $39 3 4+
Indirect,X AND ($44,X) $21 2 6
Indirect,Y AND ($44),Y $31 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed



ASL (Arithmetic Shift Left)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Accumulator ASL A $0A 1 2
Zero Page ASL $44 $06 2 5
Zero Page,X ASL $44,X $16 2 6
Absolute ASL $4400 $0E 3 6
Absolute,X ASL $4400,X $1E 3 7


ASL shifts all bits left one position. 0 is shifted into bit 0 and the original bit 7 is shifted into the Carry.



BIT (test BITs)
Affects Flags: N V Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page BIT $44 $24 2 3
Absolute BIT $4400 $2C 3 4


BIT sets the Z flag as though the value in the address tested were ANDed with the accumulator. The S and V flags are set to match bits 7 and 6 respectively in the value stored at the tested address.
BIT is often used to skip one or two following bytes as in:


CLOSE1 LDX #$10 If entered here, we
.BYTE $2C effectively perform
CLOSE2 LDX #$20 a BIT test on $20A2,
.BYTE $2C another one on $30A2,
CLOSE3 LDX #$30 and end up with the X
CLOSEX LDA #12 register still at $10
STA ICCOM,X upon arrival here.




Branch Instructions
Affect Flags: none

All branches are relative mode and have a length of two bytes. Syntax is "Bxx Displacement" or (better) "Bxx Label". See the notes on the Program Counter for more on displacements.

Branches are dependant on the status of the flag bits when the op code is encountered. A branch not taken requires two machine cycles(機器週期). Add one if the branch is taken and add one more if the branch crosses a page boundary. (若不成立則須2個機器週期,成立為3個,若跨頁將大於4個)

MNEMONIC HEX
BPL (Branch on PLus) $10
BMI (Branch on MInus) $30
BVC (Branch on oVerflow Clear) $50
BVS (Branch on oVerflow Set) $70
BCC (Branch on Carry Clear) $90
BCS (Branch on Carry Set) $B0
BNE (Branch on Not Equal) $D0
BEQ (Branch on EQual) $F0


There is no BRA (BRanch Always) instruction but it can be easily emulated by branching on the basis of a known condition. One of the best flags to use for this purpose is the oVerflow which is unchanged by all but addition and subtraction operations.



BRK (BReaK)
Affects Flags: B

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Implied BRK $00 1 7


BRK causes a non-maskable interrupt and increments the program counter by one. Therefore an RTI will go to the address of the BRK +2 so that BRK may be used to replace a two-byte instruction for debugging and the subsequent RTI will be correct.



CMP (CoMPare accumulator)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate CMP #$44 $C9 2 2
Zero Page CMP $44 $C5 2 3
Zero Page,X CMP $44,X $D5 2 4
Absolute CMP $4400 $CD 3 4
Absolute,X CMP $4400,X $DD 3 4+
Absolute,Y CMP $4400,Y $D9 3 4+
Indirect,X CMP ($44,X) $C1 2 6
Indirect,Y CMP ($44),Y $D1 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed


Compare sets flags as if a subtraction had been carried out. If the value in the accumulator is equal or greater than the compared value, the Carry will be set. The equal (Z) and sign (S) flags will be set based on equality or lack thereof and the sign (i.e. A>=$80) of the accumulator.



CPX (ComPare X register)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate CPX #$44 $E0 2 2
Zero Page CPX $44 $E4 2 3
Absolute CPX $4400 $EC 3 4


Operation and flag results are identical to equivalent mode accumulator CMP ops.



CPY (ComPare Y register)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate CPY #$44 $C0 2 2
Zero Page CPY $44 $C4 2 3
Absolute CPY $4400 $CC 3 4


Operation and flag results are identical to equivalent mode accumulator CMP ops.



DEC (DECrement memory)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page DEC $44 $C6 2 5
Zero Page,X DEC $44,X $D6 2 6
Absolute DEC $4400 $CE 3 6
Absolute,X DEC $4400,X $DE 3 7




EOR (bitwise Exclusive OR)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate EOR #$44 $49 2 2
Zero Page EOR $44 $45 2 3
Zero Page,X EOR $44,X $55 2 4
Absolute EOR $4400 $4D 3 4
Absolute,X EOR $4400,X $5D 3 4+
Absolute,Y EOR $4400,Y $59 3 4+
Indirect,X EOR ($44,X) $41 2 6
Indirect,Y EOR ($44),Y $51 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crosses



Flag (Processor Status) Instructions
Affect Flags: as noted

These instructions are implied mode, have a length of one byte and require two machine cycles.

MNEMONIC HEX LEN TIM
CLC (CLear Carry) $18 1 2
SEC (SEt Carry) $38 1 2
CLI (CLear Interrupt) $58 1 2
SEI (SEt Interrupt) $78 1 2
CLV (CLear oVerflow) $B8 1 2
CLD (CLear Decimal) $D8 1 2
SED (SEt Decimal) $F8 1 2


Notes:
The Interrupt flag is used to prevent (SEI) or enable (CLI) maskable interrupts (aka IRQ's). It does not signal the presence or absence of an interrupt condition. The 6502 will set this flag automatically in response to an interrupt and restore it to its prior status on completion of the interrupt service routine. If you want your interrupt service routine to permit other maskable interrupts, you must clear the I flag in your code.

The Decimal flag controls how the 6502 adds and subtracts. If set, arithmetic is carried out in packed binary coded decimal. This flag is unchanged by interrupts and is unknown on power-up. The implication is that a CLD should be included in boot or interrupt coding.

The Overflow flag is generally misunderstood and therefore under- utilised. Following addition or subtraction, the overflow will equal the EOR (exclusive or) of the Carry and Sign flags. This flag is not affected by increments, decrements, shifts and logical operations i.e. only ADC, SBC, CLV, PLP and RTI affect it. There is no op code to set the overflow but a BIT test on an RTS instruction will do the trick.




INC (INCrement memory)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page INC $44 $E6 2 5
Zero Page,X INC $44,X $F6 2 6
Absolute INC $4400 $EE 3 6
Absolute,X INC $4400,X $FE 3 7




JMP (JuMP)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Absolute JMP $5597 $4C 3 3
Indirect JMP ($5597) $6C 3 5


JMP transfers program execution to the following address (absolute) or to the location contained in the following address (indirect). Note that there is no carry associated with the indirect jump s
AN INDIRECT JUMP MUST NEVER USE A
VECTOR BEGINNING ON THE LAST BYTE
OF A PAGE

For example if address $3000 contains $40, $30FF contains $80, and $3100 contains $50, the result of JMP ($30FF) will be a transfer of control to $4080 rather than $5080 as you intended i.e. the 6502 took the low byte of the address from $30FF and the high byte from $3000.




JSR (Jump to SubRoutine)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Absolute JSR $5597 $20 3 6


JSR pushes the address-1 of the next operation on to the stack before transferring program control to the following address. Subroutines are normally terminated by a RTS op code.


LDA (LoaD Accumulator)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate LDA #$44 $A9 2 2
Zero Page LDA $44 $A5 2 3
Zero Page,X LDA $44,X $B5 2 4
Absolute LDA $4400 $AD 3 4
Absolute,X LDA $4400,X $BD 3 4+
Absolute,Y LDA $4400,Y $B9 3 4+
Indirect,X LDA ($44,X) $A1 2 6
Indirect,Y LDA ($44),Y $B1 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed




LDX (LoaD X register)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate LDX #$44 $A2 2 2
Zero Page LDX $44 $A6 2 3
Zero Page,Y LDX $44,Y $B6 2 4
Absolute LDX $4400 $AE 3 4
Absolute,Y LDX $4400,Y $BE 3 4+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed




LDY (LoaD Y register)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate LDY #$44 $A0 2 2
Zero Page LDY $44 $A4 2 3
Zero Page,X LDY $44,X $B4 2 4
Absolute LDY $4400 $AC 3 4
Absolute,X LDY $4400,X $BC 3 4+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed




LSR (Logical Shift Right)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Accumulator LSR A $4A 1 2
Zero Page LSR $44 $46 2 5
Zero Page,X LSR $44,X $56 2 6
Absolute LSR $4400 $4E 3 6
Absolute,X LSR $4400,X $5E 3 7


LSR shifts all bits right one position. 0 is shifted into bit 7 and the original bit 0 is shifted into the Carry.




Wrap-Around
Use caution with indexed zero page operations as they are subject to wrap-around. For example, if the X register holds $FF and you execute LDA $80,X you will not access $017F as you might expect; instead you access $7F i.e. $80-1. This characteristic can be used to advantage but make sure your code is well commented.

In cases where you are writing code that will be relocated you must consider wrap-around when assigning dummy values for addresses that will be adjusted. Both zero and the semi-standard $FFFF should be avoided for dummy labels. The use of zero or zero page values will result in assembled code with zero page opcodes when you wanted absolute codes. With $FFFF, the problem is in addresses+1 as you wrap around to page 0.



Program Counter
When the 6502 is ready for the next instruction it increments the program counter before fetching the instruction. Once it has the op code, it increments the program counter by the length of the operand, if any. This must be accounted for when calculating branches or when pushing bytes to create a false return address (i.e. jump table addresses are made up of addresses-1 when it is intended to use an RTS rather than a JMP).

The program counter is loaded least signifigant byte first. Therefore the most signifigant byte must be pushed first when creating a false return address.

When calculating branches a forward branch of 6 skips the following 6 bytes so, effectively the program counter points to the address that is 8 bytes beyond the address of the branch opcode; and a backward branch of $FA (256-6) goes to an address 7 bytes before the branch instruction.



Execution Times
Op code execution times are measured in machine cycles, one of which equals two clock cycles. Many instructions require one extra cycle for execution if a page boundary is crossed; these are indicated by a + following the time values shown.




NOP (No OPeration)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Implied NOP $EA 1 2


NOP is used to reserve space for future modifications or effectively REM out existing code.




ORA (bitwise OR with Accumulator)
Affects Flags: S Z

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate ORA #$44 $09 2 2
Zero Page ORA $44 $05 2 2
Zero Page,X ORA $44,X $15 2 3
Absolute ORA $4400 $0D 3 4
Absolute,X ORA $4400,X $1D 3 4+
Absolute,Y ORA $4400,Y $19 3 4+
Indirect,X ORA ($44,X) $01 2 6
Indirect,Y ORA ($44),Y $11 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed




Register Instructions
Affect Flags: S Z

These instructions are implied mode, have a length of one byte and require two machine cycles.

MNEMONIC HEX
TAX (Transfer A to X) $AA
TXA (Transfer X to A) $8A
DEX (DEcrement X) $CA
INX (INcrement X) $E8
TAY (Transfer A to Y) $A8
TYA (Transfer Y to A) $98
DEY (DEcrement Y) $88
INY (INcrement Y) $C8




ROL (ROtate Left)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Accumulator ROL A $2A 1 2
Zero Page ROL $44 $26 2 5
Zero Page,X ROL $44,X $36 2 6
Absolute ROL $4400 $2E 3 6
Absolute,X ROL $4400,X $3E 3 7


ROL shifts all bits left one position. The Carry is shifted into bit 0 and the original bit 7 is shifted into the Carry.




ROR (ROtate Right)
Affects Flags: S Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Accumulator ROR A $6A 1 2
Zero Page ROR $44 $66 2 5
Zero Page,X ROR $44,X $76 2 6
Absolute ROR $4400 $6E 3 6
Absolute,X ROR $4400,X $7E 3 7


ROR shifts all bits right one position. The Carry is shifted into bit 7 and the original bit 0 is shifted into the Carry.




RTI (ReTurn from Interrupt)
Affects Flags: all

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Implied RTI $40 1 6


RTI retrieves the Processor Status Word (flags) and the Program Counter from the stack in that order (interrupts push the PC first and then the PSW).
Note that unlike RTS, the return address on the stack is the actual address rather than the address-1.




RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Implied RTS $60 1 6


RTS pulls the top two bytes off the stack (low byte first) and transfers program control to that address+1. It is used, as expected, to exit a subroutine invoked via JSR which pushed the address-1.
RTS is frequently used to implement a jump table where addresses-1 are pushed onto the stack and accessed via RTS eg. to access the second of four routines:

LDX #1
JSR EXEC
JMP SOMEWHERE

LOBYTE
.BYTE <ROUTINE0-1,<ROUTINE1-1
.BYTE <ROUTINE2-1,<ROUTINE3-1

HIBYTE
.BYTE >ROUTINE0-1,>ROUTINE1-1
.BYTE >ROUTINE2-1,>ROUTINE3-1

EXEC
LDA HIBYTE,X
PHA
LDA LOBYTE,X
PHA
RTS




SBC (SuBtract with Carry)
Affects Flags: S V Z C

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Immediate SBC #$44 $E9 2 2
Zero Page SBC $44 $E5 2 3
Zero Page,X SBC $44,X $F5 2 4
Absolute SBC $4400 $ED 3 4
Absolute,X SBC $4400,X $FD 3 4+
Absolute,Y SBC $4400,Y $F9 3 4+
Indirect,X SBC ($44,X) $E1 2 6
Indirect,Y SBC ($44),Y $F1 2 5+

+ add 1 cycle if page boundary crossed


SBC results are dependant on the setting of the decimal flag. In decimal mode, subtraction is carried out on the assumption that the values involved are packed BCD (Binary Coded Decimal).
There is no way to subtract without the carry which works as an inverse borrow. i.e, to subtract you set the carry before the operation. If the carry is cleared by the operation, it indicates a borrow occurred.




STA (STore Accumulator)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page STA $44 $85 2 3
Zero Page,X STA $44,X $95 2 4
Absolute STA $4400 $8D 3 4
Absolute,X STA $4400,X $9D 3 5
Absolute,Y STA $4400,Y $99 3 5
Indirect,X STA ($44,X) $81 2 6
Indirect,Y STA ($44),Y $91 2 6

Return To Index




Stack Instructions
These instructions are implied mode, have a length of one byte and require machine cycles as indicated. The "PuLl" operations are known as "POP" on most other microprocessors. With the 6502, the stack is always on page one ($100-$1FF) and works top down.

MNEMONIC HEX TIM
TXS (Transfer X to Stack ptr) $9A 2
TSX (Transfer Stack ptr to X) $BA 2
PHA (PusH Accumulator) $48 3
PLA (PuLl Accumulator) $68 4
PHP (PusH Processor status) $08 3
PLP (PuLl Processor status) $28 4




STX (STore X register)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page STX $44 $86 2 3
Zero Page,Y STX $44,Y $96 2 4
Absolute STX $4400 $8E 3 4




STY (STore Y register)
Affects Flags: none

MODE SYNTAX HEX LEN TIM
Zero Page STY $44 $84 2 3
Zero Page,X STY $44,X $94 2 4
Absolute STY $4400 $8C 3 4
好久沒完6502了
也沒時間......
目前除了拼課業就是玩Linux(還說沒時間......)

Mowd
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文章: 1824
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文章 Mowd » 2005-08-25 8:12 PM

tgclc是不是掛很久了啊
Mowd 與你的交流天地
歡迎您的到來

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sppmg
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一級會員
文章: 260
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文章 sppmg » 2005-08-29 11:58 AM

什麼意思?
是指暑假嗎?我不知道,暑假我幾乎沒上網。
好久沒完6502了
也沒時間......
目前除了拼課業就是玩Linux(還說沒時間......)

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